This study has the purpose of analysing how higher education providers from across the world are harnessing the properties of flexibility and openness – which are highly related to digitalisation strategies – to improve teaching and learning and learner support. The global survey of higher education providers covered all continents, more than thirty countries and 69 cases.

Nearly three-quarters of all HEIs analysed can be seen to have at least one strategic focus within the model developed in the study to analyse how flexibility and openness is being harnessed. Typologies were developed through this analysis to provide a way to group HEIs with similar strategic focuses.

The findings suggest that most higher education providers are just at the beginning of developing comprehensive strategies for harnessing digitalisation and the study argues that they can benefit from the outcomes of this study’s research, which can be used for benchmarking similarities and differences and for cooperative peer learning between institutions.

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Suggested citation:  Orr, D., Weller, M., & Farrow, R. (2018).  Models for online, open, flexible and technology-enhanced higher education across the globe – a comparative analysis. International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE). Oslo, Norway. Available from  CC-BY-SA.